The Different Types of Sensors and Its Applications

What is a Sensor?

A sensor is a device that takes physical input from its surroundings and turns it into data that a human or a machine can evaluate. The majority of sensors are electronic, however, some can be analog. For example, a glass thermometer that displays body temperature is an analog sensor.

Types of Sensors

Sensors are categorised depending on their function. Some common types of sensors include:

Temperature Sensor

Proximity Sensor

Infrared (IR) Sensor

  • A transmissive type IR sensor can detect an object that passes in between it and a detector placed opposite to it.
  • A reflective IR sensor detects an object that passes in front of the sensor. Here, the detector is placed next to the sensor.

Ultrasonic Sensor

An ultrasonic sensor is a non-contact device that can measure the distance as well as the velocity of an object. It operates on sound waves at frequencies higher than the human auditory range. The sensor can detect the distance of an item by measuring the duration of the sound wave. Furthermore, using the Doppler Shift feature of a sound wave, an ultrasonic sensor can calculate an object’s velocity. People may also use ultrasonic sensors to measure distances in regions with difficult and hard to traverse terrain.

Light Sensor

Smoke and Gas Sensor

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